Economics

THE ECONOMY & CLIMATE CHANGE

The climatic problem comes from the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) notes that, between 1990 and 2014, radiative forcing - which has a warming effect - registered an increase of 36% due to long-lived greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide , methane or nitrous oxide. And carbon dioxide is the biggest cause of climate change.

Such an increase results from the activities of our daily life. This is the case of the excessive use of energy from fossil fuels, the activity of industries and elements of domestic use. But it also results from urbanization and agricultural-livestock production and from the irresponsible deforestation that, in general, for years they could not "see beyond their noses". And while our country is not the most involved, its behavior leaves much to be desired.

Thus, the world suffers from crude phenomena such as the increase in the global average temperature, the changes in precipitation patterns, the rise in sea level, the reduction of the cryosphere and changes in the patterns of extreme climatic phenomena.

“Climate change affects agricultural productivity, guarantor of the world's food and energy security”.

Is the economy one of the main responsible for a world that has not managed to "see beyond their noses"?

For centuries, the economy was related to the study of ethics. Unlike Adam Smith, David Ricardo, he began a long process of distancing himself from the ethical plane, by introducing an approach closer to engineering, centered on the "media" and leaving aside the "ends".

During this process of estrangement, the economy has persisted in an increasingly aseptic and quantitative method, to the detriment of value judgments and subjectivism proper to the human condition. The contributions of utilitarianism and the marginalist and neoclassical schools, after Ricardo, have sustained theoretical positions for years without recognizing their social character. The distancing between the two has been one of the main causes of the current climate problems.

But in recent decades, as society has seen the multiple damages to the ecosystem and, consequently, to its quality of life, the economy has once again understood its long-term horizon and warned of the restrictions it must respect in pursuit of sustainable development.

Today, in economic science, "development" expresses a commitment to equity and the adjective "sustainable" implies a period of permanence and a future. Amartya Kumar Sen emphasizes the ethical consideration for economic science. In On Ethics and Economics, he says: "The economy can become more productive by paying more and more explicit attention to the ethical conditions that shape human behavior and judgment."

The criterion of maximization of benefits begins to be subordinated to ethics and values and, therefore, to environmental sustainability. In his Encyclical Laudato Si, Francisco expresses: "Very easily the economic interest comes to prevail over the common good and to manipulate the information so as not to affect their projects".

The economy can not allocate resources in the context of a global system that is unknown. On the other hand, it can stimulate the social group to walk with lifestyles in line with the renewability of resources and the reduction of waste with an ethical sense.

The environmental crisis demands that, more and more, the economy take ethics and ecology into account through a system of values where the integrality of man develops in harmony with the environment where he lives.

The criterion of maximization of benefits begins to be subordinated to ethics and values and, therefore, to environmental sustainability. In his Encyclical Laudato Si, Francisco expresses: "Very easily the economic interest comes to prevail over the common good and to manipulate the information so as not to affect their projects".





Economics

ENVIRONMENTAL ECONIMICS

In modern times where globalization wins the headlines of the media, it seems to show an apparent lack of interest in environmental conservation, but in reality it is not, true economic integration must go hand in hand with the implementation of regulatory measures that do not restrict economic activity and that contribute to sustainable development, as well as environmental management where citizens are involved, not as a pressure group, but as participants when making decisions with environmental consequences.

It is precisely in this general scheme where the environmental economy arises to seek or at least propose favorable ways that lead to optimization in the exploitation of natural resources, whose reserves are scarce but with different uses for which it is necessary to opt.

Environmental economics encompasses the study of environmental problems using the vision and tools of the economy. Currently, there is an erroneous concept of Economics, since the first thing that is thought is that its field of study is in its entirety about business decisions and how to obtain returns in the capitalist mode of production. But the Economy focuses on the decisions made by economic actors on the use of scarce resources.





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