By Muhammad Umer Khan

Experts have said that in the last decade of the United States of America Texas, rising chances of earthquakes can increase the excavation and discovery of oil and gas wells. According to the Science Magazine report, though the earthquake is natural, but due to the modern earthquake itself, humans are the ones whose initiatives are causing harm to the earth. It can be estimated by observing environmental pollution and earthquakes. The report states that the earthquake comes due to the modern technique used for excavation in the Earth, which is called hydraulic fracturing and fracking.



The Earth is our planet and the only one inhabited. It is located in the ecosphere, a space that surrounds the Sun and that has the right conditions for life to exist.

Earth is the largest of the rocky planets. This makes it possible to retain a layer of gases, the atmosphere, which disperses light and absorbs heat. By day it prevents the Earth from getting too hot and, at night, it gets cold.

Seven out of every ten parts of the earth's surface are covered with water. The seas and oceans also help regulate the temperature. The water that evaporates forms clouds and falls in the form of rain or snow, forming rivers and lakes. At the poles, which receive little solar energy, the water freezes and forms the polar ice caps. The southern one is larger and concentrates the largest reserve of fresh water.

Formation of the Earth

The Earth is our planet and the only one inhabited. It is located in the ecosphere, a space that surrounds the Sun and that has the right conditions for life to exist.

It was formed about 4,600 million years ago, along with the entire Solar System. Although the oldest stones are not more than 4,000 million years old, meteorites, which correspond geologically to the Earth's core, give dates of about 4,500 million years, and the crystallization of the nucleus and precursor bodies of meteorites it is believed that it happened at the same time, about 150 million years after the Earth and the Solar System were formed.

After condensing from the cosmic dust and gas by gravitational attraction, the Earth was almost homogeneous and quite cold. But the continued contraction of materials and the radioactivity of some of the heavier elements caused it to heat up. Later, it began to melt under the influence of gravity, producing the differentiation between the crust, the mantle and the core, with the lighter silicates moving upwards to form the crust and the mantle and the heavier elements, especially iron. and nickel, falling towards the center of the Earth to form the nucleus.

At the same time, the eruption of the numerous volcanoes, caused the release of vapors and volatile and light gases. Some were trapped by the gravity of the Earth and formed the primitive atmosphere, while condensed water vapor formed the first oceans.

Magnetism of the Earth

The Earth behaves like a huge magnet. The English physicist William Gilbert was the first to point to terrestrial magnetism, in 1600, although its effects had been used much earlier on primitive compasses.

The Earth is surrounded by a powerful magnetic field, as if the planet had a huge magnet in its interior whose south pole was near the geographic north pole and vice versa. By parallelism with the geographic poles, the terrestrial magnetic poles are called magnetic north pole and magnetic south pole, although their real magnetism is opposite to that indicated by their names.

The magnetic north pole is located today near the west coast of Bathurst Island in the Northwest Territories in Canada. The magnetic south pole is at the end of the Antarctic continent in Adélie Land.

The positions of the magnetic poles are not constant and show remarkable changes from year to year. Variations in the Earth's magnetic field include the change in the direction of the field caused by the displacement of the poles. This is a periodic variation that is repeated every 960 years. There is also a smaller annual variation.



It is the science that studies and describes the shape of the Earth, or the distribution and arrangement of the elements on the earth's surface; the term comes from the Greek words Geo (earth) and graphe (description).

Geographical study includes both the physical environment and the relationship of human beings with this physical environment. In other words, it describes the geographical features such as climate, soils, relief forms, water or plant formations, together with the elements studied by human geography, such as population entities, different cultures, networks of communication and other modifications made by man in the physical environment. This implies the need for a detailed analysis in which other sciences and disciplines provide valuable data. All this raises the fact that geography is not an isolated science, but links with geology, astronomy, history, political economy and natural sciences.

To study geography, different geographic methods are used: data collection, annotation of the results of the studies in the form of letters, graphs, texts, especially in maps, and finally, the analysis of said information.

From a global point of view, geography can be divided into regional and general. Regional geography studies the different areas of the earth and focuses, above all, on the unique and particular combinations of human and physical features that characterize each region and the differences between them.

The general geography studies the human and physical elements of the Earth with an individual character. For its study it is divided into branches:

physical geography (it studies the form and structure of the terrestrial surface, it is subdivided into geomorphology, climatology and terrestrial and maritime hydrography); biological geography (studies the manifestations of animal and plant life), and human geography (it investigates man and his spatial distribution, his productive activity and his territorial organization, subdivides in demographic, economic and social geography, rural and urban, and political )

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